Maxims & Wise Counsel
Ní dlig ferann fer cen treoir,
ní dlig degairm fer cen gliaid,
ní dlig cerchaill cenn co mbeoil,
ní dlig feoil fer cen scíain.
(not * deserves * land * man * without * energy /
not * deserves * good armament * man * without * fight /
not * deserves * pillow * head * with * grease /
not * deserves * meat * man * without * knife)
A man without energy doesn't deserve land,
a man without fight doesn't deserve good weapons,
a greasy head does not deserve a pillow,
a man without a knife doesn't deserve meat.
A quatrain found in the margin of the manuscript Harleian 5280, edited and translated by Meyer in ZCP II.225. I have followed Meyer's suggestion to supply "fer" in the first line, which preserves the syllable count, and have normalized the spelling somewhat. See also maxims beginning "dligid" and "dlighidh" in this collection.
Nochan fhitir mac duine
cuich dá ndénann sé cruinne;
in cruinne do fodéin é,
nó in cruinne do neach aile?
(not * knows * son * of man /
whom * to which * makes * he * universe /
is it * universe * for him * self * it /
or * is it * universe * for * someone * other)
Man doesn't know
for whom he fashions a world;
is it a world for himself,
or a world for someone else?
This quatrain, conventionally attributed to Colum Cille, is found on page 318b of the Yellow Book of Lecan. (My thanks to Clodagh Downey for locating and reporting the text!) The irregular spelling of the MS has been normalized above. T. F. O'Rahilly gave a slightly different version of it as item # 44 in "Dánfhocail":
Nochan fhidir mac duine
cia dá ndéanann a chruinne;
an cruinne dhó féin do-ní,
nó cruinne do neach eile.
Giolla Brighde Ó hEoghusa wrote this quatrain expressing the same idea, asking the man who plants an apple tree who will be there later to harvest the fruit:
A dhuine chuirios an crann
cía bhus beó ag búain a ubhall?
Ar bfás don chraoibh ghégaigh ghil,
ré a fhégoin dáoibh an deimhin?
See also "In bith-sa is bith cáich ar uair" in this collection.
Sladbrad ocus guin duine,
gáir cloc, gáir ceall, gáir ngloine,
saint, feall, fingal co féighe,
báthuidh féli sin uile.
(pillage-robbery * and * killing * of man /
cry * of bells * cry * of churches * cry * of purities /
greed * treachery * kin-slaying * with * eagarness /
drowns * generosity * that * all)
Pillage, robbery, and murder,
the church's curse and excommunication,
greed, treachery, eagar kin-slaying,
generosity wipes all that clean!
This is the third stanza from a poem from the MS Laud 615, known by its first line as "Eineach úaisle ná gach dán". The poem extols "enech" (face, reputation, honor) and "féile" (generosity) as the greatest virtues, and tends to see them as equivalent. A modern proverb from Galway, quoted in "A Miscellany", says "Go dtéidh grian go grinneall, ní rachaidh fial go hifreann." (Until the sun goes to the bottom of the sea, a generous man will not go to hell.)
Dlighidh gabha gúal.
(deserves * smith * coal)
A smith is entitled to coal.
In Old Irish spelling, this would be "Dligid gobae gúal". Compare "Dligid óc eladain" in this collection. This maxim is found in the first poem in the Bodleain MS Laud 615, which is available on line, and which was the subject of discussion on Old-Irish-L (March/April 2005). Its companion maxim in the same poem is "Dlighidh coire cnáimh " (A cauldron deserves a bone), also in this collection. The specific meaning of this saying is that a blacksmith is (legally?) entitled to not just a fee for his work, but to the raw materials that go into it: iron and coal. The more general import seems to be that anyone who provides a valuable service is entitled to full and generous recompense for his work.
Fer nád fintar co cluinter.
(man * that not * is known * until * is heard)
A man that you don't know until you hear him speak.
This line from a stanza found in the "Auraicept" (ll.535) almost certainly incorporates a maxim something like "Ní·fintar fer co·cluinter." (A man is not known until he is heard.) For the complete stanza, see "Díambad messe in banmaccán" in this collection.
Béodae cach bráthair fri araile.
(vigorous * every * brother * against * another)
Brothers (or, kinsmen) are energized when they compete against one another.
This maxim was quoted in the "Annals of the Four Masters" for the year 1581, when Cineál Eoghain and Cineál Chonaill came to blows. There were close kinsmen on both sides and the battle was fierce, which led the annalist to remark "ro dearbhadh an dearbh-aruscc airdearc don chur sa, .i. beodha gach brathair fri aroile". (The famous maxim was proved in this instance, that is, 'vigorous is every brother against another'.) A Scottish Gaelic saying encapsulates a similar observation: "Is e farmad a nì treabhadh." (Competitiveness is what gets the plowing done.)
Ní flaith téchtae nád ingella laith ar cach ndomnach.
(not * ruler * legitimate * that not * promises * ale * on * every * Sunday)
A rightful ruler provides beer on Sundays.
This maxim is found in paragraph 41 of the 8th century legal text "Críth Gablach". A good ruler was expected to be a generous host to his people. A failure of hospitality on his part could call his rule into question. In "Cath Maige Tuired", the Túatha Dé turn against Bres, their king, because he did not "grease their knives" (níptar béoluide a scénai) and because however often they visited him, when they left "their breath did not smell of beer" (níptar cormaide a n-análai).
Bid co h-eistechtach cailli,
bid co féchsanach muigi,
oir ní fedrais, mór in mod,
nach biad t' escara it fharrad.
(be * hearingful * of forest /
be * watchful * of plain /
for * not * you know - great * the * deed /
that not * would be * your * enemy * in your * presence)
Keep your ears open in the forest
and your eyes open on the plain,
for you don't know -- this is important --
whether your enemy is near.
This is the eleventh stanza in the poem "Fionn's Advice to Mac Lugach" at the beginning of "Acallam na Senórach". See also "Dá trian do mhíne re mnáibh" in this collection.
Dá trian do mhíne re mnáibh
is re h-echlachuib urláir,
re h-aes dána dénta duan;
nárbhat dian re daescar-shlúagh.
(two * third * of * gentleness * to * women /
and * to * attendants * of floor /
to * folk * of poetry * of making * songs /
be not * severe * to * lowly people)
Two thirds of your gentleness to women,
and to domestic servants,
and to the poets who make songs;
don't be hard on common folk.
This is the third stanza of a poem of thirteen stanzas found in "Acallam na Senórach" (580-606) in which Fionn gives Mac Lugach fatherly advice on how to comport himself as a gentleman.
Maircc chuindges ní for carait
minab lainn leis a tabairt;
is é déde nostá de,
miscais ocus oirbire.
(woeful * who requests * thing * upon * friend /
if not is * desire * with him * its * giving /
is * it * two things * which he has * of it /
hatred * and * reproach)
Woe to him who asks a friend
for something he doesn't wish to give;
the two things he gets for it
are ill feeling and rebuke.
A stanza edited by Kuno Meyer in the series "Mitteilungen as Irischen Handschriften", at ZCP iv.469.